Former investigations have studied the personality differences of short and long sleepers. Based on contradictory results, opposing conclusions have been drawn. Hartmann, Baekland and
Zwilling (1972) postulate that long sleepers are more introverted and neurotic than short sleepers. Likewise, Hartmann concludes that with respect to neurotic disorders, long sleepers have
significantly higher levels of anxiety than short sleepers. Hicks and Pellegrini (1977) reject Hartmann’s hypothesis. Their research shows that the short sleepers “were found to be significantly
more anxious” than the long sleepers.
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